English as a Second Language Editing & Tutoring


An Italian immigrant housewife makes an American breakfast using materials from the YMCA, 1918

Photograph by Pierre Daye, 1917

In the early decades of the 20th century such newcomers to the United States were encouraged to take “Americanization” classes to speed their assimilation. Day and evening school sessions offered adults subjects including child care, hygiene, housekeeping, English—and courses in eliminating accents once English was learned. This photograph was first published in the April 1918 article for National Geographic, “What Is It to Be an American?”

Emmy Noether


Amalie Emmy Noether (1882-1935), German mathematician and physicist

Photographer Unknown, Before 1910

Emmy Noether (Amalie Emmy Noether, 23 March 1882–14 April 1935) was an influential German mathematician known for her groundbreaking contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics. Described by Albert Einstein, Norbert Wiener, and others as the most important woman in the history of mathematics, she revolutionized the theories of rings, fields, and algebras. In physics, Noether’s theorem explains the fundamental connection between symmetry and conservation laws. She emigrated from Germany to teach at Bryn Mawr College in Philadelphia.

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Sally Storch_Harvest Moon
Featured Image: “Harvest Moon” – Sally Storch, 2012

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